Rootless pisolithus (Pisolithus arhizus)
- Department: Basidiomycota (Basidiomycetes)
- Subdivision: Agaricomycotina (Agaricomycetes)
- Class: Agaricomycetes (Agaricomycetes)
- Subclass: Agaricomycetidae (Agaricomycetes)
- Order: Boletales
- Family: Sclerodermataceae (Sclerodermaceae or False raincoats)
- Genus: Pisolithus (Pisolithus)
- Species: Pisolithus arhizus (Pisolithus rootless)
Fruit bodies: pear-shaped or clavate, rounded at the top or irregularly spherical. Fruit bodies, elongated, pitted, branched at the base, or sessile. The false stem is 1 to 8 centimeters thick; most of the stem is hidden underground. The spore-bearing part reaches 2-11 centimeters in diameter.
Peridium: smooth, thin, usually uneven, lumpy. At a young age, brittle ocher-yellow in color, then turns yellow-brown, red-olive or dark brown.
Gleb: Gleb of a young mushroom contains a large number of whitish capsules with spores, which are immersed in tram – a gelatinous mass. At the cut site, the fruit body has a grainy, beautiful structure. Ripening of the mushroom begins at the top and gradually ends at its base. As the mushroom matures, the gleb breaks down into several uneven, pea-shaped peridiols. Angular peridiols, initially sulfur yellow, then reddish brown or brown. A ripe mushroom becomes similar to animal excrement, rotten stumps or half-decayed roots. The destroyed peridiols form a dusty, powdery spore mass. Young fruiting bodies have a slight mushroom smell. Ripe mushrooms smell unpleasant.
Spore powder: brown.
Distribution: Rootless pisolitus occurs on drained disturbed or acidic soils. Grows in small groups or singly. Prefers mine ovals, greened old quarries, overgrown clearings along old roads and paths. Resistant to very acidic soils and soils containing heavy metal salts. Fruiting from summer to early autumn.
Edible: Some sources call the mushroom edible at a young age, while others do not recommend eating it. Some reference books indicate the use of the mushroom as a seasoning.
Similarity: At a young age, this species can be mistaken for the Warty Puffin.
Remarks: Pizolitus Beskornevoy has a practical purpose for reforestation in areas with disturbed soils. Forms mycorrhiza with pine and some other species. In southern Europe it is used as a yellow dye. Isolated from Pizolitus, Pisosterol has antitumor activity. A rare species included in the red lists of the Rostov region, Buryatia and some other countries.