- Other names for the mushroom:
- Pisolithus rootless
- Lycoperdon capitatum
- Pisolithus arhizus
- Scleroderma tinctorium
- Pisolithus rootless;
- Lycoperdon capitatum;
- Pisolithus arhizus;
- Scleroderma tinctorium.
Fruit bodies of rootless pizolithus are rather large, in height they can reach from 5 to 20 cm, and in diameter – from 4 to 11 (in some cases – up to 20) cm.In young mushrooms of pisolithus dyeing, the fruit body has a spherical shape, but later becomes clavate .
The pseudopod of this fungus is characterized by a length of 1 to 8 cm and a diameter of about 2-3 cm. It is deeply rooted, fibrous and very dense. In young mushrooms, it is poorly expressed, and in mature ones it becomes very unpleasant, repulsive.
Season and habitat of the mushroom
Previously, the Pisolíthus tinctorius mushroom was classified as a cosmopolitan, and it could be found almost everywhere, except for the regions located beyond the Arctic Circle. Now, the boundaries of the habitat of this fungus are being revised, since some of its subspecies, which grow, for example, in the southern hemisphere and the tropics, are classified as separate species. On the basis of this information, it can be said that pisolithus is found in the Holarctic, but its varieties found in South Africa and Asia, Central Africa, Australia, New Zealand, most likely belong to related types. On the territory of Russia, pisolithus dye can be seen in Western Siberia, in the Far East and in the Caucasus. The period of the most active fruiting is in the summer and early autumn. Grows either singly or in small groups.
Dyeing pisolithus grows mainly on acidic and poor soils, in forest clearings, gradually overgrowing, on greening dumps and gradually overgrown quarries. However, these mushrooms can never be seen on limestone-type soils. It is extremely rare that it grows in forests that are practically untouched by humans. Can form mycorrhiza with birch and coniferous trees. It is a mycorrhizal forming agent with eucalyptus, poplars and oaks.
Most mushroom pickers consider pisolitus dyeing an inedible fungus, however, some sources say that the unripe fruit bodies of these mushrooms can be safely eaten.
Mature mushrooms of this species in southern Europe are used as a technical dyeing plant, from which yellow dye is obtained.
Similar types and differences from them
The characteristic appearance of the dyeing pisolithus, and the presence of a multi-chamber gleba in it, allows mushroom pickers to immediately distinguish these mushrooms from other species. This variety of mushrooms has no fruit bodies similar in appearance.
Other information about the mushroom
The generic name of the described mushroom comes from two words with Greek roots: pisos (which means 'pea') and lithos (translated into Russian as 'stone'). The dye pizolithus contains a special substance called triterpene pisosterol. It is isolated from the fruiting body of the fungus and used for the production of drugs that can effectively fight active tumors.
Pisolithus dye has the ability to grow on acidic and nutrient-poor soils. This quality, in turn, gives the mushrooms of this species to have a significant ecological value for the restoration and cultivation of forests in areas with soils that have technogenic disturbances. The same type of mushrooms is used for reforestation in quarries and dumps.
Photo of the mushroom Pisolitus dyeing from the issues in recognition:
2019.09.24 Svetlana Rachmanina