Processing mushrooms after harvest
Mushrooms are exposed to high temperatures to fully or partially eliminate their toxicity, bitter taste or bad smell. It should be remembered that such processing degrades the nutritional qualities of mushrooms, and also weakens their aroma and taste. Therefore, if there is such an opportunity, mushrooms are better not to cook, and fry them in a natural, fresh form. it it is quite possible with chanterelles, mushrooms, mushrooms, mushrooms, summer mushrooms and young autumn, as well as many rows and russula. Let’s say even more: some varieties of mushrooms gain viscosity after boiling. This happens, for example, with annular caps, chanterelles, as well as legs of boletus and boletus. You should know about these features when cooking. mushroom dishes.
But with some mushrooms, cooking is indispensable. Accounted for sacrifice nutritional value to dissolve harmful in water substances. Such mushrooms include: traps (pink and white), some russula (brittle and pungent), ordinary stitches, Gruzdy (black and yellow). They need to be cooked for about 15-30 minutes, and then be sure to pour the broth. The bitter aftertaste of some mushrooms (moths, milkers, earrings, breasts, bitter, violinists, and some talkers and russula) is removed by short cooking (enough for 5-15 minutes). But it’s useless to cook a bile mushroom – bitterness will not disappear.
Stage one – primary processing of mushrooms. Consists of several consecutive steps:
1) Sort. Different types of mushrooms differ not only in taste, but also in cooking technology. Therefore, pre-sorting does not hurt at all. For instance, you can separate the mushrooms that need to be boiled from those that can be thrown into the pan fresh. To make mushrooms comfortable process, it is recommended to put them into heaps, depending on size.
2) To clear of garbage. Together with mushrooms we we bring from the forest leaves, needles, pieces of moss and twigs that stuck on hats and legs. All this inedible garbage, of course, need to be removed – scraped off with a kitchen knife or gently cleaned clean with a cloth. You should be especially careful with mushrooms, which planned to dry for the winter. Here you can clean the entire surface. mushroom with a brush, without missing a single fold.
3) Clean with a knife. Some parts of the mushroom definitely not suitable for food. They must be carefully cut with a knife so as not to risk your health. This, for example, is all softened, damaged, or darkened places. If the mushroom is old, then the inside of the cap should be removed. Some mushrooms It is recommended to cut off the leg so that the dish does not turn out to be viscous. A in later butter and russula clean the hat – there is a peel in the process cooking becomes mucous and bitter.
4) Rinse with running water. Mushroom washing time should be small so as not to spoil the taste of this product. If it is planned to fry the mushrooms, then it is enough to beat them cold water. Mushrooms for drying do not wash at all. Other processing methods involve quick washing in cold water and recline in a colander to allow excess glass fluid. For those goals, by the way, a sieve or a flat board without recesses and troughs. Some mushrooms have an uneven surface, in their creases often gather dust and sand. These are blackberries, lines, morels and some others. Naturally, these types need to be washed a little longer to remove all the garbage. True, experts say that with plain water you still can’t completely get rid of sand, and recommend boiling mushrooms in boiling water for five minutes, and then Drain and rinse in a colander.
5) Soak. This is done in order to remove from the mushrooms bitter or salty notes in the taste. Water in this it is recommended that you change it once an hour so that harmful substances left faster. Soaking also helps bring dried mushrooms back. their pristine humidity. Such water can be used as basics for mushroom broth.
6) Cut. Big mushrooms need it sizes that cannot be cooked whole. Many separate hats from the legs and cook them separately so that the dish or canned food in the jar looked more attractive. The hat is cut to even the number of parts (two, four, six – it all depends on the size). The leg is neatly cut across, making sure that the pieces do not turned out too thick.
II stage – subsequent (thermal) mushroom processing. Includes several ways to your choice:
1) Boiling. Water must be preliminarily boil, add salt there to your taste and put mushrooms. The foam generated during the cooking process must be removed. Mushrooms are boiled in about 15-30 minutes. The finished product is thrown into a colander or cool in cold water.
2) Boiling. Initially, the mushrooms are placed in cold salted water and as quickly as possible bring to a state boiling. Immediately after boiling, the dishes are removed from the stove. Mushrooms can be gradually cooled in the same water in which they boiled, or pour cold water. When the mushrooms have cooled, they must be put in a bag of cloth or on a sieve to remove residues moisture. You can not squeeze mushrooms: with this method, together with water from The product irrevocably leaves useful substances.
3) Scalding (or blanching). Mushrooms first washed thoroughly, and then put on a sieve or in a colander and poured very hot water. After that, briefly dipped in boiling water (you can hold it over a pot of boiling water). Blanching is The fastest heat treatment method. After him, no mushrooms break, which is very important if you are going to salt them or marinate. As a rule, mushrooms are scalded or russula with a flat or just a big hat.
Not all mushrooms (even edible!) Are suitable for food. For instance, old or overgrown specimens are soft, sagging and extremely unappetizing aroma. Better not to risk your health and to throw such mushrooms without regret. But the problem is that even young mushrooms deteriorate quickly if not treated immediately after returning from the forest. If this is not possible, then processing can be delayed the next day, but no later. It is advisable to clean the mushrooms from garbage, but in no case Do not cut or wash. It is best to keep the gifts of the forest wide basket or other flat utensils. Mushrooms need coolness and good air ventilation. Therefore a basement, a corridor, a barn or the subfloor is the best place to store. In urban conditions a fridge will do. Just do not forget to set the temperature mode + 2 ° – + 6 °. If you plan to boil the mushrooms, you can pour storage time with cold water.
What to do if the next day did not work out mushrooms? There is a proven way to extend their “life”. Product rinse with cold water, allow moisture to drain (for this purpose a colander or sieve will do), pour cool boiling water over it, and then put in neat rows in a bowl and sprinkle with salt. The container is required glass or enameled, and put it need on ice. In this form, the mushrooms will retain their freshness even on a week.