Very often, unusual mushrooms with a large plate-like cap and a thin long stem grow along the side of the highway. Most people think that it is a white grebe or fly agaric. But in reality it is an umbrella mushroom, which is an edible and very tasty fruiting body.
The mushroom got its name for its strong external resemblance to an umbrella. At first, the cap on the leg looks like a closed umbrella or a dome, and soon it opens and becomes a copy of the umbrella. It is important to remember that almost all edible mushrooms have false or poisonous counterparts. Umbrellas are also no exception and have their own inedible 'brothers'. Therefore, mushroom pickers need to adhere to certain rules: do not pick mushrooms that are in doubt.
It is quite possible to distinguish an edible mushroom from a poisonous umbrella. And if, having come to the forest, you are not aware of how and where to collect umbrellas, then you do not need to knock them down with your feet, mistaking them for poisonous mushrooms. Perhaps those who come after you will be happy with such a harvest.
We suggest that you familiarize yourself with the description and photos of poisonous umbrella mushrooms. There are 4 types of them in our region: comb umbrella, chestnut umbrella, brown-red umbrella and fleshy red. However, only the first two species are considered the most dangerous.
- Poisonous mushroom comb umbrella
- How to distinguish an umbrella from a similar poisonous mushroom lepiot
- How to distinguish an edible mushroom umbrella from a poisonous toadstool and fly agaric (with video)
- How to tell an edible umbrella from an inedible purple mushroom
- Red umbrella mushroom: poisonous or edible?
- Inedible umbrella white: what a poisonous mushroom looks like
Poisonous mushroom comb umbrella
The Latin name for the comb umbrella: Lepiota cristata;
Hat: 2 to 5 cm in diameter, bell-like in juveniles and spread out in adults. The color is red-brown, on the surface there are pointed yellow-orange scales.
Stem: very thin, empty in the middle, 7 to 10 cm in height, 0.5 cm in diameter, cylindrical, with a widening base. Color from yellowish to cream, with a white ring or pink. The ring is quite narrow and disappears almost immediately.
Flesh: white color of the flesh with fibrous blotches, with a strong unpleasant odor.
Edible: poisonous, completely unsuitable for food;
Distribution: prefers the northern regions of the country with a temperate climate.
How to distinguish an umbrella from a similar poisonous mushroom lepiot
Another poisonous mushroom that looks like an umbrella is chestnut lepiota.
Latin name: Lepiota castanea;
Hat: 2 to 4 cm in diameter, red or brown. The cap is ovoid only in young mushrooms, in adult specimens it is prostrate. Further, the skin on the cap begins to crack into small hard chestnut scales. The plates under the cap turn yellow over time;
Pulp: has a reddish or brown tint, especially when broken or cut, has an unpleasant odor and is very fragile when touched;
Leg: It has a cylindrical shape that expands and falls towards the base. The ring on the leg is white, but quickly disappears with age;
Edible: the mushroom is very poisonous, when eaten most often deaths occur;
Distribution: grows in regions with moderate climatic conditions. It can often be found in Eastern and Western Siberia, as well as in European countries.
It is worth saying that the doubles of umbrella mushrooms are poisonous and very dangerous. Therefore, if you do not know exactly which mushroom is in front of you, do not touch it.
How to distinguish an umbrella mushroom from a lepiota – a poisonous mushroom? The leg of a poisonous lepiota is up to 12 cm high, with a thickness of up to 1.2 cm. It resembles a cylinder in shape, inside is hollow, slightly curved, smooth, white. After the ring on the leg, the color changes and becomes yellowish or brown. If you touch the leg, it turns brown. Look at the photo how to distinguish an umbrella mushroom from a poisonous twin:
How to distinguish an edible mushroom umbrella from a poisonous toadstool and fly agaric (with video)
To know the difference between edible and poisonous mushrooms, umbrellas, watch also the video. It will help you more accurately identify existing differences.
For example, how to distinguish an umbrella mushroom from a fly agaric? Amanita has scales on its cap, but they are rare. Usually, the caps of this mushroom are almost smooth, with a small amount of white scales. The umbrella is gray or brown with large white or gray scales. The umbrella leg is framed by three layers of a white ring that slides down easily.
Many mushroom pickers confuse umbrellas with white toadstools and get poisoned. Therefore, the question arises, how to distinguish an umbrella mushroom from a toadstool?
White toadstool is a very toxic mushroom, and if used accidentally, death occurs in 90% of cases. The entire mushroom is grayish or off-white. Its cap has no scales, but is covered with flakes. The pulp of a white toadstool has a rather unpleasant chlorine smell. There is no ring on the leg, it disappears very early, instead of it fragments of fiber remain.
How to tell an edible umbrella from an inedible purple mushroom
There is another false umbrella, which can also be confused. How to distinguish an edible mushroom umbrella from an inedible one – a purple umbrella? The inedible purple mushroom has a matching color, bitter taste and unpleasant odor. Although this fruiting body is not poisonous, it is not recommended to eat it due to its strong bitterness. We offer you to see a visual photo of an inedible umbrella mushroom:
It is worth noting that umbrella mushrooms are very common among representatives of the mushroom kingdom. Since they grow on decaying organic debris, on rotting plants, they are also called saprophytes. Sometimes umbrellas can reach very large sizes, for example, a hat in diameter can be more than 23 cm, and a leg height up to 30 cm. Umbrella mushrooms grow in circles, forming rings, popularly called 'witch circles'. In such circles, umbrellas can grow up to several dozen.
Red umbrella mushroom: poisonous or edible?
Some mushroom pickers are sure that the red umbrella mushroom is considered poisonous and therefore do not collect it. We hasten to calm them down, this mushroom is edible and very tasty.
Latin name: Macrolepiota rhacodes;
Hat: beige or gray with fibrous-looking scales. Young mushrooms resemble a small chicken egg, and then their cap expands and resembles a bell. With age, it becomes completely flat with slightly tucked edges;
Stem: smooth, white or light brown. The shape is cylindrical, tapering at the top and easily detached from the cap;
Plates: white or cream colored, reddening when pressed;
Flesh: white, very brittle, fibrous. When cut, it becomes a reddish-brown hue, while it has a pleasant smell;
Edible: edible mushroom;
Distribution: deciduous and coniferous forests, thickets of acacias. In addition to Russia, it can be found in Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, America.
Scientists warn that a blushing umbrella mushroom, even though edible, can cause severe allergic reactions in allergy sufferers.
Inedible umbrella white: what a poisonous mushroom looks like
Another umbrella that mushroom pickers consider inedible is the white umbrella mushroom.
Latin name: Macrolepiota excoriata;
Synonyms: white umbrella, field umbrella, white lepiota;
Hat: gray-white, up to 13 cm in diameter, with scales that easily fall behind. Young mushrooms look like a hen's egg, then become flat and have a pronounced brown tubercle in the center of the cap. Whitish fibrous compounds are visible along the edges of the cap;
Leg: the height can vary from 5 to 14 cm. The inside is practically empty, has a cylindrical shape, and is slightly curved. The leg below the ring is dark in color, and turns brown when touched;
Pulp: white, smells good, has a tart taste, does not undergo changes on the cut;
Plates: rather thick, loose, with smooth edges. In young individuals, the plates are white, in old ones – beige or brown;
Distribution: found throughout Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and many European countries. Grows in steppes, forests, pastures, especially where there are humus soils.
Now, having read the description of inedible mushrooms, you know what a poisonous umbrella mushroom looks like. Therefore, when going to the forest for mushrooms, remember this information and photos of poisonous umbrellas well so as not to endanger your life.
And one more important rule for mushroom pickers: do not collect umbrellas near the motorway, industrial plants and garbage dumps. Even if mushrooms are edible, but grow in such places, they absorb poisons harmful to the human body, and can cause poisoning.