Brown birch (Leccinum scabrum)
- Department: Basidiomycota (Basidiomycetes)
- Subdivision: Agaricomycotina (Agaricomycetes)
- Class: Agaricomycetes (Agaricomycetes)
- Subclass: Agaricomycetidae (Agaricomycetes)
- Order: Boletales
- Family: Boletaceae
- Genus: Leccinum (Obabok)
- Species: Leccinum scabrum (Brown birch)
- Other names for the mushroom:
- Common boletus
Hat: In a boletus, the cap can vary from light gray to dark brown (the color obviously depends on the growing conditions and the type of tree with which the mycorrhiza is formed). The form is semi-spherical, then pillow-shaped, naked or thin-clotted, up to 15 cm in diameter, slightly slimy in wet weather. The pulp is white, does not change color or slightly pinkish, with a pleasant 'mushroom' smell and taste. In old mushrooms, the flesh becomes very spongy, watery.
Spore-bearing layer: White, then dirty gray, tubes are long, often eaten by someone, easily detached from the cap.
Spore powder: Olive brown.
Leg: The length of the leg of a birch tree can reach 15 cm, diameter up to 3 cm, solid. The shape of the leg is cylindrical, slightly widened below, gray-whitish, covered with dark longitudinal scales. The pulp of the leg with age becomes woody-fibrous, tough.
Distribution: Brown birch (Leccinum scabrum) grows from early summer to late autumn in deciduous (preferably birch) and mixed forests, in some years very abundant. It is sometimes found in surprising quantities in spruce plantations interspersed with birch. It gives good yields in very young birch forests, appearing there almost the first among commercial mushrooms.
Similar species: The genus of Brown Birch trees contains many species and subspecies, many of them are very similar to each other. The main difference between the boletus (a group of species united under this name) and the boletus (another group of species) is that the boletus turn blue at the break, and the boletus by no means. Thus, it is easy to distinguish between them, although the meaning of such an arbitrary classification is not entirely clear to me. Moreover, in fact, there are actually enough among the 'boletus' and species that change color – for example, the pink boletus (Leccinum oxydabile). In general, the further into the forest, the more varieties of paints.
It is more useful to distinguish the Brown Birch (and all decent mushrooms) from the gall mushroom. The latter, in addition to the disgusting taste, is distinguished by the pinkish color of the tubes, a special 'greasy' texture of the pulp, a peculiar mesh pattern on the leg (the pattern is like that of a porcini mushroom, only dark), a tuberous stem, unusual places of growth (around stumps, near ditches, in dark conifers forests, etc.). In practice, confusing these mushrooms is not dangerous, but offensive.
Edible: Brown birch – Normal edible mushroom. Some (Western) sources indicate that only the caps are edible, and the legs are supposedly too hard. Absurd! Cooked hats are just different with a nauseating gelatinous consistency, while the legs always remain strong, collected. The only thing that all reasonable people agree on is that the tubular layer of old mushrooms must be removed. (And, ideally, take it back to the forest.)
Author's notes: Despite the seeming routine, the birch is a rather mysterious mushroom. First, fruiting. For several years, it can grow in Homeric quantities everywhere and everywhere. In the early 90s, boletus was, without exaggeration, the most widespread mushroom in the Naro-Fominsk region. He was loaded with buckets, troughs, trunks. And in one year he disappeared, and he still does not. There were enough whites as they are (despite the crowds of greedy summer residents), and the boletus has disappeared. From time to time only monstrous freaks come across: small, thin, crooked.
In the summer of 2002, for obvious reasons, there were no mushroom pickers at all, and what do you think? occasionally quite decent boletus boletus came across. Something will be next time, I thought.
And the next time was not long in coming. The summer and autumn of 2003 turned out to be so fruitful that all speculations about the degeneration of the boletus can be safely sent to the dump of opinions. The birch trees went in June and walked and walked and walked without a break until the beginning of October. The field, overgrown with young birch trees, was completely trampled by mushroom pickers – but without a bag of these brown birch trees, not a single good person returned. The forest edges were cluttered with stools. Three times in a row (without missing a single day) I could not get to the place where I expected to meet a black lump, my character let me down: I immediately grabbed all the young and strong birch trees that I saw, and after 100 meters my hike ended: it's banal there were containers. I am sure that for many years the 2003 season will be remembered as a fairy tale, but then the sensations were different. It seemed that literally before my eyes, the value of the boletus was being devalued.
Photo of the mushroom Brown birch from the questions in recognition:
2016.11.27 2019.09.06 Alexander Kozlovskikh 2018.10.03 Marina 2017.09.07 Vladimir 2016.11.22 2016.11.03 Gennady