Amanita bristly (Amanita echinocephala)
- Department: Basidiomycota (Basidiomycetes)
- Subdivision: Agaricomycotina (Agaricomycetes)
- Class: Agaricomycetes (Agaricomycetes)
- Subclass: Agaricomycetidae
- Order: Agaricales (Agaric or Lamellar)
- Family: Amanitaceae (Amanitaceae)
- Genus: Amanita (Amanita)
- Species: Amanita echinocephala (Amanita bristly)
The main Russian synonyms for this type of mushroom are:
- Fat bristly
- Fly agaric
Amanita muscaria (Amanita echinocephala) is a mushroom belonging to the genus Amanita. In the literature, the interpretation of the species is ambiguous. For example, a scientist named K. Bas talks about the bristly fly agaric as a synonym for A. Solitaria. The same interpretation is followed by two more scientists: R. Talloss and S. Wasser. According to the studies carried out by Species Fungorum, the bristly fly agaric should be classified as a separate species.
External description of the mushroom
The fruiting body of the bristly fly agaric consists of an initially almost round cap (which later transforms into an extended one) and a leg, which is slightly thickened in its middle, and at the top, near the cap, has a cylindrical shape.
The height of the mushroom leg is 10-15 (and in some cases even 20) cm, the diameter of the leg varies within 1-4 cm. The base buried in the soil has a pointed shape. The surface of the leg is yellowish or white, sometimes olive-green. On its surface, there are whitish scales that result from cracking of the cuticle.
Mushroom pulp of high density, characterized by a white color, however, at the base (near the leg) and under the skin, the pulp of the mushrooms becomes yellowish. Its smell is unpleasant, as well as the taste.
The diameter of the cap is 14-16 cm, and it itself is characterized by good meatiness. The edge of the cap can be jagged or even; there are visible remnants of a flocculent bedspread on it. The upper skin on the cap can have a white or grayish color, gradually it becomes light ocher, sometimes acquires a greenish tint. The cap is covered with pyramidal warts with bristles.
The hymenophore consists of plates characterized by a large width, frequent, but free arrangement. Initially, the plates are white, then they become light turquoise, and in mature mushrooms, the plates are characterized by a greenish-yellow tint.
Habitat and period of fruiting
Amanita muscaria is common in deciduous and mixed forests, where oaks also grow. You can rarely meet this type of mushroom. It prefers to grow in coastal areas near lakes or rivers, thrive in calcareous soils. Bristly fly agarics are more widespread in Europe (mainly in its southern regions). There are known cases of detection of this type of mushroom in the British Isles, Scandinavia, Germany and Ukraine. On the territory of Asia, the described type of mushroom can grow in Israel, Western Siberia and Azerbaijan (Transcaucasia). Amanita muscaria actively bears fruit in the period from June to October.
Amanita echinocephala (Amanita echinocephala) belongs to the category of inedible mushrooms.
Similar species, distinctive features from them
There are several species similar to the bristly fly agaric. It:
- Amanita solitaria (lat.Amanita solitaria);
- Pineal fly agaric (Latin Amanita strobiliformis). Distinctive features of this type of mushroom are white plates, pleasant aroma. Interestingly, some mycologists consider this mushroom fit for human consumption, although most still insist on its toxicity.
Always be especially careful with fly agarics!